Category Archives: Reading List Notes

Avinash Kaushik – Multi Channel Attribution


MCA-O2S (Multi Channel Attribution, Online to Store)

The attempt for marketers and analysts to understand and attribute offline impact (sales, calls, brand value etc) driven by online marketing.

Case studies

–       Quaker Oats boosted instore sales by 9%

–       HP – every $ spent online generated $5.3 in store

MCA-AMS (Multi Channel Attribution, Across Multiple Screens)

Using different devices on the customer journey (tablet, desktop, TV, phone) – near impossible to track and attribute effectively.

  MCA-ADC (Multi Channel Attribution, Across Digital Channels)

Analysing how different digital mediums contribute to a conversion (i.e. a mix of organic search, paid search, referral, social network, email, YouTube etc). But it’s analysing the different mediums FOR ONE DEVICE. (MCA-ADC-FOD!).


Practical Steps forward – quoted

1.     Choose which MCA you’re trying to solve (O2S, AMS of ADC)

 2.     “2. Use the appropriate set of solution (see sections above). If MCA-ADC…

3.     3. Get really, really good at understanding your multi-channel funnel reports. They are free. They are awesome. Use the Venn diagram in the Overview report to display reality to your management team. They’ll love you, and stop wasting money.

4.     4. Start to experiment with the simple models. You are moving away from last click, you’ll abandon first and even very quickly. Spend some love and attention on the time decay attribution model (ideally with several mathematical options to apply).

5.     5. Experiment with changes in your digital portfolio based on your time decay results.

6.     6. Measure outcomes. Go back. Analyze the data. Change some more.

7.     7. As you master that, shift slowly to playing with media mix modeling type controlled experiments”



Google Analytics Video Tutorial Notes


1. Location Analytics Video

(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

World View -> Audience/Demographics/Locations

Region/City View -> Drill Down by clicking on country the click tabs to breakdown again by region

Metrics when considering location:  Traffic visits/ how many pages people look at on average per visit/duration of visit/bounce rate (average percentage of people who land on page from external site and only look at one page).

Conversions by location _> Click Goal Set 1 -> See conversions, different type of conversions set

Traffic source by location – Type source into secondary dimension on world/region/city view

2. Mobile Analytics Video

(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

  1. Audience/Demographics/Mobile
  2. Choose Devices or choose Overview

DEVICES-> click camera to see photo images of device. Metrics when considering mobile:  Traffic visits/ how many pages people look at on average per visit/duration of visit/bounce rate (average percentage of people who land on page from external site and only look at one page).

Note – Bounce rate and duration on page indicate how well the page is optimised for that device (how goof the experience is for the visitor)

Click Goal Set 1 – to see breakdown of conversions by device

Click tabs at top:

  1. Branding – to see breakdown of visits/bounce back/conversion etc by device brand (i.e. Apple/Samsung)
  2. Service Provider – to see breakdown of visits/bounce back/conversion etc by service provider brand (i.e. sky, O2, Vodafone)
  3. Input Selector (i.e. is the device touch screen, roller, keyboard)
  4. Operating System (i.e.iOS7/Android/Blackberry or whatever)
  5. Screen Resolution (i.e. what size screen was the web viewed on)

Note – Input selector and screen resolution key when dividing which devices to optimise your site for.

OVERVIEW – see breakdown of desktop vs. table vs. mobile

3. Traffic Sources Analytics Video

(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

  1. Traffic source/Sources/All Traffic

There’s a visits over time graph and metric table data.

In the first column, Source refers to how the visitor got to the page (search/direct etc), Medium refers to whether it was organic /paid/referral

Metrics when considering location:  Traffic visits/ how many pages people look at on average per visit/duration of visit/bounce rate (average percentage of people who land on page from external site and only look at one page). Note – the higher the bounce rate the less relevant the content it.

Click tabs at top:

i.            Source: direct/search/other websites

ii.            Medium: organic, natural, referral, twitter comparisons

iii.            Keyword: what keywords are driving visits  – (many not provided)

iv.            Content?

v.            Technology : can see which browsers are being used, operating systems, sceen sizes and flash/java stats.

vi.            Landing page/location/language/ad content

Click secondary dimension:

i.e. choose landing page to see how different pages are performing

4. LANDING PAGE Analytics Video

(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

  1. Content/Site Content/Landing Pages

(Note consider Content Drill down and Exit Pages)

Metrics when considering location:  Traffic visits/ how many pages people look at on average per visit/duration of visit/bounce rate (average percentage of people who land on page from external site and only look at one page).

Goal Set 1 – see how different landing pages contribute to conversion

Secondary Dimension – i.e. Source – shows what the most popular page + way-to-get-there combos are (i.e. homepage direct 100 visits, course page direct 58 visits, homepage search 58 visits


(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

-> Traffic source/Advertising/Adwords

1.  Campaigns: The table metics are differening, they now include Goal Completionts. you can look at the Goal Set 1 data as usual but you can also click ‘Clicks’.

This creates new metrics to compare: Visits, Impressions, Clicks, Cost, CTR, CPC

2. Bid Adjustments

Can switch between Device Location and Schedule. This shows you how your bid adjustments are performing in adword enhanced campaigns.

3.  Keywords

Switch between Ad Content and Keywords – this allows you to analyse how affective your ad copy is (the 1st column has the 1st line of each ad’s copy)

4.  Match Search Queries

How the actual searches compares to the keyword you’re bidding on

Use Keyword as a secondary dimension to compare – USEFUL

5.    Day Parts

Allows you to see performance of your ads during different times of the day. Important for time optimisation and bidding

6.   Destinations URLS

Helps you understand how each URL is performing through paid search

7.     Placements

What channels your ads are appearing on (i.e. Google, YouTube, Bing, Yahoo) (click placement domain at top)

8.      Keyword Positions

Right hand white box – change from visits to bounce rate

At top switch to Goal Set 1 and right box to look at overall conversion rate


(Remember it’s over last month, you can change date or compare with last year etc)

  1. Conversions/Multi-channel Funnel

These reports help you understand the different journeys and devices people use before using your site.

Overview -> Visualise how different traffics work to help a conversion

Path Lengths –> how many different devices are used before a conversion

Tag length –> how many days elapse before first visit and conversion

Top Conversion Paths -> shows you the different types of traffic paths that people go on before converting

–          can change the conversion type (course sign-up, info request etc.) at the top

–          Can also change the path length and switch between paid traffic and all traffic

Assisted Conversions (useful) -> An assisted conversion is when a medium wasn’t the last click but was used in the traffic path before a conversion. Look at the difference between last click conversion and assist conversions.


Questions for group/tutor

What are the Goal Set 1 – how are they different to each other?

Why is Twitter a Medium?

What is Content when looking at traffic??

What is Ad Content when looking at traffic?

Difference between visits and clicks in Adwords/Campaign/clicks report?

Path and Tag length – graphs show opposite to what gilly explains!?



Recommended Reading – Module Four, Class One

pig geek

 Top 20 Conversion Insights of 2012

Quotes from the conversions rock stars:

  • Guy Kawasaki  “If you have more money than brains you should focus on outbound marketing. If you have more brains than money you should focus on inbound marketing”.
  • Ian Lurie “Never have a paragraph longer than 3 or 4 lines of text…Folks don’t want to read”
  • Jon Correll “Start testing and stop arguing”
  • Chris Goward “We listen to our gut, then test what it says. We gather market research, then test it. We create best practices, then test them. We listen to opinions, then test them. We hear the advice of the experts, then test it.
  • Steve Krug “Remove 50% of the copy on your page, then remove half of what’s left.”
  • Roberta Rosenberg & Peep Laja  – Copy must meet the customer’s needs – not yours
  • Jen Gordon & Gregory Ciotti below

Conversion rockstars

An in-depth home page optimisation example

Handy Lessons

  1. Identify where customers hesitate – hesitations lose a sale. Get rid of ‘objection points’ (i.e. customer unwilling to put in sensitive info) get rid of them through explaining why they’re there is language that customer would use.
  2. Using too many offers/discounts trains customers to wait for the next sale. Existing life-time customers are more valuable in the long term. Focus on long term gains rather than short term losses. Test how effective your large offers/discounts are over a week.
  3. Consider (and test) different media. Is your page dependent on one type of media (text heavy, video heavy, image heavy etc.).
  4. Short pages aren’t necessarily better. It doesn’t matter how much or little your page has on it as long as everything on it answers a customer’s needs.

Course Reading for Digital Marketing Mix Seminar

reading pig

Roy McClean: Replace the 4 ‘Ps’ of introducing a new product with 4 ‘Cs’

Consumer wants and needs (vs. Products) – how does the product fulfil an individual customer’s need?

Cost to satisfy (vs. Price) – being the cheapest won’t mean you always win, have something of better value than just money to offer to keep you on the edge of your competitors

Convenience to buy (vs. Place) – does your customer prefer to buy online, over the phone, with a credit card, in store?

Communication (vs. Promotion) – use interaction as a way of advertising

HelpScout: The new 4 Ps of Marketing

Traditional marketing focuses too much on the new product. The Four Ps don’t take into consideration the importance of showing customers WHY they NEED the product, what is value is, how it will satisfy the customer.

Instead, businesses should be using the S.A.V.E. framework, championed by Eduaro Conrado, Chief Marketing Officer for Motorola.

Focus on SOLUTION (vs. Products) – bluntly, a customer won’t care about your product unless it solves a problem for them

Focus on ACCESS (vs. Place) – place is no longer relevant, you have to be there when your customer is looking for you on all channels (ZMOT)

Focus on VALUE (vs. Price) – customers don’t care about your product costs or your margins,  the do care about the ‘perception of value’, explain why your product is more superior instead of comparing prices with other similar products.

Focus on EDUCATION (vs. Promotion) – great content is better and quicker for engaging a customer and creating a relationship with them than waiting for them to fall under the ‘rule of 7’ via banner ads, TV ads, PPC ads etc

Resources for Assignment

Course Reading – The Zero Moment of Truth:2012 Google Handbook


Jim Lecenski defines the Zero Moment of Truth as “Now, after consumers hear about you, their next step is to learn more (and look for the best price) at the Zero Moment of Truth: that instant when they open their laptops, pick up their smartphones or grab their tablets, and search to see if you meet their needs.”

The customer journey is now regarded as a ‘flight path’ – it’s not linear but jumps around different hub points (print/high street/shops/friends/friends & family/TV/Radio) – but the most common or most frequently used hub is referred to as ONLINE. This covers social media recommendations, comparing prices online, looking for coupons and vouchers and covers desktop/tablet and mobile searches.

Top Tips for being there at the ZMOT

1.       Be there on every screen

77% people use another device whilst watching TV. There are two types of multi-screen behaviour, sequential (using one device in one environment and another in a different environment (i.e. laptop at home, mobile on the train) and simultaneous (using a tablet whilst watching the TV).

How to crack multi-screen advertising? Make sure brand messaging is consistent between all devices, make sure your site loads QUICKLY on mobile, include direct actions on mobile (click to call), watch video, set reminders.

2.       Win Local ZMOT

95% smartphone users search for local info. Think about local ad extensions (maps) and features, click to call, directions, nearest store distances, sharing locations on mobile searches.

3.       T-commerce

Tablet users have money – they like to buy on their iPad, so much so that there’s now T-commerce. Tablet search behaviour is closer to desktop (compared to mobile) so forget ‘click to call’ and think ‘buy from your tablet’ COAs – and using HTML5 not Flash.

4.       Affiliates

70% people abandon their online shopping baskets – one reason could be to find coupons/deals to put in that ‘enter your discount code’ box. The biggest sites with these codes are affiliate sites – embrace them, be visable on these sites, get the customer back to your site and get the sale. Affiliates are usually CPA and don’t have to cost the earth with planning. Read more in the handbook.

5.       Be there for brand and non-brand searches

For organic and paid searches, get your brand appearcing for generic keywords. It’s nearly a 50/50 split for las clock conversions on brand and generic keywords – but the branded ones usually have a generic ‘assist’.

6.       Manage Bids not Budgets

In an ideal world, companies will find out on average how much each click costs and bid below it. Once each click has a provable ROI there’s should be a budget to keep to as in theory each click is making you money. Nice theory and completely possible – but can be difficult to execute.

7.       Use products feeds in PPC

– Ideally with images

8.       Never forget: Loyalty, Convenience, Speed

For smaller retailers – you can deliver goods on the same day – be optimised for local search

Create loyalty/convenience schemes that are more personal than the big players.

Get reviews

Loyalty – always remember customers over clicks – look after your customers, they are high-value and long lasting. Provide them with incentives, keep them coming back.

 9.       Use YouTube to show off your products

68% of consumers use YouTube to browse and research companies. Tech products are really popular with videos – with demonstrations, how-tos, instructions, feature guides etc. Think of images as well – even on iPhones.

10.   Build confidence with digital interactions

Either with an online chat help desk – (20% they prefer this to phoning a live helpdesk). Live answer questions/queries/mentions on social media.

11.   Visible social recommendations increase CTC

 12.   Measure micro and macro conversions

Micro conversions include other points of interactions such as writing a review, signing up to a newsletter, downloading a how-to guide. These are of significant value and help build customer confidence and loyalty. You can attribute exact value by looking at the macro conversions. See the social media meaures for Applause, Conversion, Amplification terms from the notes on Avinash Kaushik.

13.   Join the Attribution Revolutions

“If you’re just relying on the last click, you’re missing out on a whole lot of information. You have to see all media together in the flight path to discover what gets shoppers to buy.”



Module 2 – Class 5 Recommend Reading

pig readding

Post by Chris Jones on how to work in an effective collaboration:

Some clear guidelines – most useful of which I think is ‘Focus on Results’ – asking the team and yourself ‘OK this is all fine but what are we going to DO about it?” – I find that the best way to get a tangible result is to actually offer a result (i.e. list of actions for people to complete by next meeting) even if people shoot them down and change them at least you’ve actively contributed and it gets people thinking of definite goals.

Collaboration: Driving Effective Teams to Improve Business Performance – John Cranfield

“The key driver of collaboration is dialogue, a deep (data-driven) conversation that generates insights.

Effective collaboration:

• Is deliberate. It does not happen accidentally or randomly
• Builds better options by comparing data to listed goals
• Builds buy-in by being so interactive that it allows each team member to be heard (people support what they help create)
• Works best when the team uses effective which guide a team’s thinking in a very interactive way”

I like the word ‘deliberate’ here – it takes deliberate effort and attention to work well together and everyone needs to be in that mind set at the start.

Interactivity is infectious and if a few people champion this it will make other people feel more comfortable – leading to better interaction.

Working backwards is another great way to get real results out of a collaboration, as Cranfield says of his own brainstorms “Once we have what we believe to be an accurate description of the problem and the contributing process, we then wonder together which step is the most likely to include the possible root cause.” Start at the end result and work out the steps going backwards that would need to happen to create that end result.

Yahoo pitching tips

  • Keep it short and sweet
  • Don’t pretend to have all the answers
  • Don’t exaggerate goals and estimates
  • Focus on the strong customer base
  • Use real life examples and data


Module 2 Lesson 1: What Does a Good Online Business Look Like?

Some reading from the next Google Squared module that I found interesting about idea generation: – Mostly generic but has some key insightful moments – most of which we’re already doing in brainstorms i.e. getting other people’s perspective, change of environment, putting yourself in someone elses shoe’s (i.e. if I were Heston Blumenthal). I thought this point was a bit different and a good way to get the brain working differently in brainstorms:

  •  “Think in reverse: If you feel you cannot think of anything new, try turning things upside-down. Instead of focusing on how you could solve a problem/improve operations/enhance a product, consider how could you create the problem/worsen operations/downgrade the product. The reverse ideas will come flowing in. Consider these ideas – once you’ve reversed them again – as possible solutions for the original challenge.” – Matrix analysis (one of the experimenting techniques) could be a good one for group brainstorms. The variables could be as varied or specific as possible (i.e. everything from client assets, to specific products, to types of digital media, to different personas, different publications etc)

–          The Guided Imagery sounds really awkward! (Imagine you’re in a field and the solution to your problem is in a box – open the box and read the solution…) – has this actually worked, ever?!

–          The Modifying techniques could also be a new way to dissect how what’s usually included in a campaign/project

  Business Models – Nice and tidy summary of the nine basic business models found on the web – the ones I’m most familiar with include Manufacturer (Direct) (i.e clients selling products directly to a buyer), but will be using many –i.e. Amazon is a Merchant biz model, sometimes I click on Affiliate links or Advertising links, and all the data and history of my internet use will be used to sell to sell to suppliers to give them understanding about their consumers – or I’ll use a site (like TripAdvisor) to get an idea of a what I should be purchasing (for holiday for example) – both known as an Infomediary.